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 Chapter 3. Networking architecture

A standard network architecture design includes a cloud controller host, a network gateway host, and a number of hypervisors for hosting virtual machines. The cloud controller and network gateway can be on the same host. However, if you expect VMs to send significant traffic to or from the Internet, a dedicated network gateway host helps avoid CPU contention between the neutron-l3-agent and other OpenStack services that forward packets.

You can run OpenStack Networking across multiple physical devices. It is also possible to run all service daemons on a single physical host for evaluation purposes. However, this is not generally robust enough for production purposes. For greater redundancy, you can run each service on a dedicated physical host and replicate any essential services across multiple hosts.

For more information about networking architecture options, see the Network Design section of the OpenStack Operations Guide.

A standard OpenStack Networking deployment usually includes one or more of the following physical networks:

Table 3.1. General distinct physical data center networks
Network Description
Management network Provides internal communication between OpenStack components. IP addresses on this network should be reachable only within the data center.
Data network Provides VM data communication within the cloud deployment. The IP addressing requirements of this network depend on the Networking plug-in that is used.
External network Provides VMs with Internet access in some deployment scenarios. Anyone on the Internet can reach IP addresses on this network.
API network Exposes all OpenStack APIs, including the Networking API, to tenants. IP addresses on this network should be reachable by anyone on the Internet. The API network might be the same as the external network because it is possible to create an external-network subnet that has allocated IP ranges, which use less than the full range of IP addresses in an IP block.
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