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 Networking layers

Network communication is commonly described in terms of the OSI model. The OSI model is a seven-layer model that describes how various protocols and mechanisms fit together. Each layer depends on the protocols in the layer beneath it.

7 Application

The Application layer of the OSI model is the user interface layer. Everything here is application specific. Some examples at this layer which could be Telnet, FTP, email.

6 Presentation

Here is where data gets translated from the application into network format and back again. The presentation layer transforms data into a form that the application layer can accept. The presentation layer formats and encrypts data which prevents compatibility problems.

5 Session

The Session layer manages connections between applications. It is responsible for session and connection coordination.

4 Transport

This layer deals with transporting data usually over TCP or Transmission Control Protocol. TCP enables two hosts to establish, connect, and exchange streams of data together. TCP also guarantees delivery of data and the order in which packets are sent.

3 Network

This layer handles transmission for data from node to node. The network layer handles routing, forwarding, addressing, inter-networking, and error handling. Usually this is the IP portion of TCP/IP.

2 Data link

The data link layer is where most LAN technologies such as Ethernet live. This layer is divided into two sub layers: MAC (Media Access Control): Handles access to data and permissions to translate it. LLC (Logical Link Control): Manages traffic across the physical layer.

1 Physical

The physical layer is the description of the physical media or signals used in networking. Examples include the size of the Ethernet, hubs, or other physical devices used to establish a network.

OpenStack Networking is primarily concerned with Layer 2 and Layer 3.

Layer-3 protocols include the Internet Protocol Suite, which includes IPv4, IPv6, and the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).

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